How to Home Brew Beer

Learn how to easily brew great tasting beer.


Best oxygenation kit with aeration wand for home brewing

Making beer is a curious process.

You have to have the right ingredients. Your boil needs to be at the right temperature and your hop additions done at the right time.

You also need your wort to be properly oxygenated.

The yeast loves oxygen during fermentation. So, if you want your yeast to have the best chances of doing a great job, efficiently and effectively, then using an oxygen kit with an aeration wand is a great way to get some air in your beer!

This is especially true if your beer is going to be a high gravity beer - these brews will usually have a lower oxygen concentration in the wort when compared to standard beers. Adding extra oxygen will improve the effectiveness of the yeast.

This then begs the question:

What is the best kit to make wort oxygen rich?

aeration wand for oxygenation

Improve the flavor of your homebrew with less effort and impress your friends and family with better results with the Northern Brewer aeration kit. Its use will reduce the 'lag phase' of fermentation and off-flavor-producing fermentation by-products.

It will take less than a minute to infuse the wort with the wand. The kit comes with a valve to attach to an oxygen tank, tubing, aeration want, 0.5 micron air stone, herbie clamp to secure the tubing to the wand.

To be clear, this kit does not come with an oxygen tank, you'll need to source your own.

Here's some reviews and comments from actual user's of Nothern Brewer's kit:

"I sterilized the wand and tubing, put it in my carboy, turned it on and it bubbled up from bottom to the top. I pitched my yeast around 5pm. By 8pm I saw a couple bubbles, by the next morning, it was bubbling like crazy!! I am very glad that I used a blow off tube on my primary!"

"Great starting oxygenation kit! if you're like me and you don't like shaking your carboy for upwards of 20 minutes then you need something like this"

"Used it to oxygenated a chocolate cherry porter and following the instructions for creating more of a "simmer" than a "rolling boil" for 40 seconds I have a healthy fermentation going in under 12 hours.

How long do you oxygenate wort for?

Regardless if you are using a kit or a stone, the total amount of time needed to oxygenate wort can be pretty short - from 30 seconds to a minute for a 20 litre batch. Double the time if you are doing double the volume. 

If you making a higher ABV beer, then you may wish to give it a bit longer. In reality, a standard brew will benefit from a saturation level of 8 - 10pp and a higher ABV brew will benefit from a level closer to 12pp (though as usual with brewers, there's some debate that 15pp is the goal). 

Before you add the wand to the wort, make sure it is properly sanitized.

Can I make my own oxygenation kit?

You sure can, it's a pretty simple process to make your own. You only need a few parts:
All you then need to do is connect the diffusion stone to the tubing, the tubing to the regulator and the regulator to the oxygen bottle.

Pretty easy set up eh?

Final worn on aeration:

While it is very important to ensure your wort is aerated before you pitch your yeast to start fermentation, you do not want to add oxygen post-fermentation completion. This means you should take particular care when moving your fermentation drum and especially when bottling or kegging your beer. 

How to reduce & remove beer sediment from bottles

how to reduce sediment from beer bottles

How to reduce the amount of sediment in beer bottles

Once you've bottled your beer and let it condition a little bit, you may notice that some sediment or sludge has formed at the bottom of the beer bottle, kind of like it did in your initial fermentation (that's called the trub)

This is very normal and is not an indication of there being anything wrong with your beer.

The sediment occurs as a result of fermentation. It is the residue of yeast and proteins and maybe some hops.

During the secondary fermentation round, the yeast has eaten the sugars, fermented and dropped to the bottom of the bottle.

Does it affect the beer in any way?

Not really.

The key thing is that when you pour beer, you'll want to ensure that you pour the beer out fully but halt the pour just when the sediment is about to exit the bottle neck.

You're aiming to leave about the last quarter to half inch of beer in the bottle. Make sure your glass or stein is big enough to take the whole pour.

If you have to stop and start the pour, there's a good chance you'll stir up the sediment.

While the residue is quite drinkable, it will make the color of your beer go cloudy. Given a good beer color is part of the drinking experience, many drinkers will avoid pouring the sediment in.

In my experience, it does not affect the taste of the beer and it will most certainly not make you sick.

If you are keen to ensure you have 'clear beer' there are some tips and tricks you can do to reduce the amount of sediment.

You're not likely to remove it all but by using the cold crash technique before you bottle, you'll remove some of the post-primary proteins.

Cold crashing is when you place your fermentation drum or carboy inside a fridge for a minimum period of 24 hours AFTER primary fermentation has occurred. The chill causes the proteins and yeast to fall out of the beer solution and to the bottom of the fermenter.

Many brewers will have a fridge in their shed which they have connected to a brewing thermostat which regulated the temperature of the beer. This is a very handy trick for when you are trying to properly regulate the temperature of your brew (and it is so very important to ensure your beer is brewed at the correct temperature! Heat has an amazing influence on beer at various stages).

When you bottle you have two choices, you can bottle straight from the fermenter or you can transfer the beer into a secondary container by way of siphoning from one drum to another. In this manner, you are leaving the sediment caused by the cold crashing in the first vessel, meaning there will be less sediment in the bottles.

Commercial breweries, including craft brewers, will actually use a filtration system on their brew to remove the sediment. This process removes the yeast so they will then repitch so that the beer will carbonate. Sediment can also be removed by use of a centrifuge.

You can also add what are called beer finings, which can improve the clarity of beer.

If you are brewing a Belgian style beer, it's important to recognize that Belgian beers usually use special yeasts and wheat so haze and sediment are normal for that style.

Here's a list of things you can do in the brewing process to help reduce sediment:

  • Do your boil 'harder' so as to maximize the "hot break" – the coagulated proteins that float around during the boil.
  • Add whirlfloc or Irish moss a day or two before bottling to help with flocculation (yeast clumping together and then falling out).
  • Before transferring to primary, whirlpool your kettle and give it a few minutes to settle.
  • Don't try to transfer everything from the kettle. Minimize the amount of hops and hot break you transfer. You can filter at this stage; splashing a bit will help with aeration.
  • Delaying bottling as long as possible to give the yeast a lot of time to fully ferment. 
  • Do cold crash
  • Add gelatin to improve clarity.
  • Use a separate bottling bucket – transfer from the primary using a beer siphon. The intake is not quite at the bottom of the beer cake, so it helps to leave the yeast cake behind.
  • After bottle-conditioning for a week or two, cold-crash the bottles at least 24 hours before opening, that or leave them in the fridge a few days before opening,

Does Bar Keeper's Friend really work?

bar keepers friend cleanerWe often talk about how imperative it is that your brewing equipment is kept clean and sanitized, we've recently discovered the wonders of Bar Keepers Friend, a wonderful cleaning product that will clean your brewing kettles and keep them bright and shiny!

The beauty of Bar Keepers Friend is that while its name may refer to its use in keeping a bar clean (it began as a polish for brass rails in turn of the century taverns), it's an all-purpose product that is used to clean all kinds of stainless steel products such as pots and pans, acrylics like bathtubs and counters and cooktops.

It will literally clean the shit stains out of toilets and it can fix those bathroom tiles so they look good as new.

Barkeeper's friend users the original 1882 formula to deliver cleaning power for any stain on any non-porous surface. It's a bleach-free product that easily removes rust, tarnish, mineral deposits, and tough stains.

It's used by homeowners, hobbyists, musicians (such as drum cymbals), and professional cleaners worldwide and of course, bar keepers whose bars need their brass shined!

For beer brewing, you can use it to clean all your stainless steel gear like taps but its major use comes from cleaning your brewing kettles. 

Check out this before and after picture when used in a kettle:

Looks like this cleaner is the real deal eh?
Here's some Amazon reviews from actual users of this wonder cleaner:

"This stuff is amazing! It removes shower/faucet/commode scale and deposits like nothing else I have ever used. If used for the right cleaning jobs, this is a product that will surpass your expectations and have you thinking of new applications, such as cleaning tools and equipment that have gained a little rust. It restored luster to old faucets that I had given up on ever looking decent again.

As a retired PhD chemist, I am always interested in great home cleaning products and how they work. One active ingredient in Bar Keepers Friend is oxalic acid, an extremely strong chelating agent that I am familiar with from the laboratory. Without getting too technical, a chelating agent binds super strongly to metals (magnesium, calcium, iron, etc.). Since bathroom scale is mainly magnesium carbonate with some calcium carbonate, oxalic acid reacts with the scale, sucking out the metal and turning the carbonate to carbon dioxide (a gas), making the scale magically disappear. If you are interested, the chemical reaction for oxalic acid reacting with magnesium carbonate is HOOCCOOH + MgCO3 --> MgOOCCOO + CO2 + H2O. Similarly, rust is iron oxide, and the oxalic acid binds to the iron, breaking up the rust and making it disappear when rinsed away."

"I had got some gunk on the outside of a Cuisinart stainless steel pan which I was very fond of, and could NOT get the crap off. Not soaking, not detergent, not soaking in detergent, not scrubbers nor steel wool, not even painting it with ketchup and leaving it for several hours. Then the housekeeper put it in the dishwasher and the gunk turned into something like thick, permanent enamel.

So I went on Google and looked up gunk on stainless steel pans, got recommendations from real people, and ordered three things from Amazon. The first to arrive was Bar Keepers Friend, and I used it, and it worked. I’m sure I will enjoy Goof-Off and Goo Gone when they get here, but I don’t need them for this pan. I made a paste, painted it on half the pan, left it for an hour, came back, scrubbed with a no-scratch scrubber, and it came off. It did take some strength and real scrubbing, but that’s good for me. And it’s gone."

"This stuff is like magic! Straight up wizardry. I love it! I initially bought it to clean my sink, which is porcelain and even though it's not even a year old, is just holding on to all the coffee and tea staining. I'd say it took less than a minute after making a paste with Bar Keepers Friend to clean the sink up to a nearly new shine.

Taking a look at the can its easy to find bunches of ways to use this stuff and each application is better than the last. Stainless steel, porcelain, ceramic, copper, brass, fiberglass, corian, chrome and aluminum. See? Magic!

Anyhow, I've used it in the sink, in the bathroom, to clean stainless steel pots and pans on a 17 year old Revereware tea kettle (which I thought would never be restored to its former loveliness, btw). This is a product that I will buy again and again and will happily recommend to anyone."

How does Bar Keepers Friend Work?

Bar Keepers Friend Cleanser & Polish has become the premium house-hold cleanser used by many a home brewer. Using a non-bleach, plant based cleanser plus mineral scrubbing micro particles, BKF attacks tough stains from two directions. 

The oxalic acid, found in plants such as rhubarb, attacks hard rust and lime stains at the molecular level, breaking up the bonds that hold them together. Once those bonds are broken down, the mineral micro scrubbing particles move in to finish the job, polishing as they remove dirty brewing deposits. 

How to use Bar Keeper's friend on a brewing kettle

  • Wet surface to be cleaned, perhaps give the brewing kettle a rinse out with a hose so any debris is soaked.
  • Sprinkle a small amount of the cleanser on the dampened surface.
  • Rub with a wet cloth or sponge. You can add more BKF as you need and don't be afraid to use some elbow grease.
  • Rinse thoroughly with water within one minute of application.
  • Then wipe the surface dry.

↣ How long can beer be left in the primary fermenter?

What is the risk of leaving a beer in the primary fermenter too long?

As a general rule of thumb, one can leave the beer in the primary fermenter as long as one needs.

There is no set maximum time limit, though there are a couple of risks to keep in mind.

Many brewers simply follow the beer recipe or instructions on the malt kit and leave their wort to ferment for around a week to ten days. This usually allows enough time for fermentation to have completed.

And technically that's OK, and it's time to bottle.

But the mystery and muscle of brewing beer are that there is a whole range of chemical processes happening in that wort you're fermenting.

Sure the yeast may have produced enough alcohol to make a good drop of beer but there are still a few things that happen.

The longer you leave your beer, the more chance the yeast has to get rid of smells and other leftovers from the fermentation process.

A great example of this is the presence of acetaldehyde in the wort. This chemicals forms at the beginning of the fermentation process. It tastes like sour green apple and is not really conducive to a good brew.

What's the best way to get rid of  'apple taste' from beer?

Let the yeast take the time to convert it into ethanol (alcohol).

So leaving your beer for longer than the recommended instructions on the tin of the beer kit is pretty much a smart move. Frankly, given the benefit to the beer and thus the kit manufacturer's reputation, I do not know why they don't frame the time as a minimum.

That said, when I followed Te Aro's brewing instructions for their Obligatory ale, I made damn good beer.

Exceptions aside, the longer you condition your beer, the greater reduction in acetaldehyde that will occur and the beer your beer will take.

Stout beers have even more to work through so they can happily take longer in the primary.

Another benefit of leaving the beer in the primary for longer is that there is a greater chance that your beer will clear more sediment, thus giving you clear beer

Many a brewer likes to see their lager look like a lager - that classic light yellow / orange combo. Sure, some wheat beers can be a bit hazy.

At the end of the day this comes down to personal preference as the beer taste is not generally affected.

What about leaving beer in for extra long times like 3 months?

Many brewers have reported leaving batches for months and suffered no issues.

I'd reason though that the beer was stored in a cool place - a beer wort left in a hot environment is sure to fail as the yeast would probably get cooked.

The lid was probably screwed on very tightly as well. 

There is an issue that can happen called autolysis.

This is when the yeast cells die, giving off some potentially 'off flavours'. These could be hydrolytic enzymes, lipids, and metal cations that can contribute to off flavour.

If you've made a healthy batch with a quality yeast, pitched at a good temperature and brewed in a stable environment, then the risks of autolysis are quite low. 

If you are quite concerned about this, you could counter by racking your beer to a secondary, thus removing the yeast cake from the equation.

It's important to note, the same process begins again when the beer is bottle conditioned - more sugar is added to the beer for the yeast to eat - this is because CO2 is the by-product of fermentation and is trapped in the beer.

Most beers strongly benefit from being bottle conditioned for three weeks before consumption and even then they usually start to become pretty drinkable at the 5 week mark. 

Easy beginner's guide to home brewing from a beer kit

beginner's guide to making home brew from a kit

Beginner's guide to brewing beer from a kit

Well done you on deciding to brew some home brew.

This guide will help guide through making your first batch of beer using a kit, step by step. It's a 'how to' for using beer kits and not beer from 'scratch'.

There is no boiling of the wort wizardry here, just some brewing 101 tips as if they came from a brewing book!

That fancy 'brewing day' in a pot stuff will come later, probably when you've got a couple of brews under your belt and you're ready to go up a grade.

If you are genuinely interested in learning how to brew beer, then a beer kit is a great way to start as you can quickly learn the fundamentals beer making in the comfort of your own kitchen or man shed.

The brewing of beer is actually an act of scientific exploration.

Now get to it!

Getting ready, at which point I assume you are ready to make beer

I'm going to assume you have a brand new beer kit for making beer.

Your loving partner may have given it to you for Christmas (mine did!) or maybe you got there yourself out of curiosity. Either way good on your for giving beer making a go.

You have all the ingredients and supplies:

You will have all the equipment.

You'll have a fermenter  - possibly a 30 litre drum or 5 gallon glass carboy.

You have access to boiling water and also to cold water.

You'll have a clean working space such as a kitchen bench and you'll have enough time to not be interrupted.

When I brew from home brew kits I do it after dinner when the kids are in bed and the dishes are done. It's just easier that way.

I might even have a couple of beers while I do the job, because it seems a natural enough thing to do right?

It's time to clean and sanitize your equipment

In case you hadn't heard, your beer wort needs a warm and clean environment in which to ferment.

That means all that nasty bacteria that are on your stirring spoon and on the inside of your fermenter drum or bottle needs to be thoroughly cleaned and then sanitized.

Your homebrew starter kit should have provided you with a sachet of a cleanser and also a sanitizer (people often refer to this process as sterilization, just go with it).

Leave your drum to soak for as long as possible (even though it's new, it's likely had all the equipment stored inside it if it's a drum, so heaps of opportunity for nasties to find a home in there).

If you plan on continuing to brew beers, this is the start of your habit of cleaning and sanitizing all your equipment every single time you make beer.




So once you are sure everything has had a good soak, carry on my wayward son to making a top-rated beer.

The rest is easy...

There are plenty of beer making methods.

We can do it in four steps.

Step 1 - Malt Up

beer extract kit sitting in a pot of water
If you're smart, you may have already put your opened tin of extract malt into a pot of boiling water so that it's warmed up and can be easily poured into your fermenter.

Sometimes I leave it sitting on the top of my closed fireplace, this works well too.

At this point, I like to put on some fancy surgical gloves so as to avoid the mess that's probably about to happen all over your kitchen bench.

Add your extract malt and about 3 liters of boiling water to your fermenter.

Stir with a sterilized stirring device until it's all dissolved.

Don't accidentally leave the spoon in your kit...

Your brew kit probably came with a beer enhancer, now is the time to add it and dissolve as well.

If your kit did not have an enhancer, you really should think about adding some and you will get a better mouth feel and enjoy your beer that much better.

Otherwise, you're probably going to add 1kg of dextrose or ordinary sugar (we do not recommend that as it will affect how your beer tastes).

Step 2 - Water is the essence of aqua...

It's time to add the water.

I like to use the garden hose so I carry the fermenter to the kitchen back door and go for gold.

The water in NZ where I'm from is pretty good. If the water is of poor quality where you come from, you may wish to find a better source of water, at the least boil it maybe.

I guess the basic rule is if you can handle drinking a glass of water from it, that's your source. Expert brewers like to test the pH level to ensure it will suit the beer.

Fill your fermenter to 5 gallons of water or to the 23 liter mark. Stick with that, your malt kit has been designed with exactly this amount of water in mind. If you add to much water, your wort will be diluted and your beer's 'mouthfeel' will be unappealing. If you add to little, you will actually raise the 'alcohol by volume' content of your beer.

Which is fine if you like things like that but remember, in doing so you are changing the profile of your beer.

yeast cells for beer

Step 3 - Yeastie Boys

It's time to add the yeast. This is called 'pitching'.

Seasoned pros will tell you to never use the yeast that comes in your starter kit or with your can of malt as it may be old or damaged or whatever.

I'm thinking you just want to make some bloody beer so throw what came with your kit into to your fermenter and worry about that kind of issue when it actually occurs.

But wait!

Make sure the temperature of the water is close to in line with the instructions on the tin of malt - you want to give the yeast a chance to activate so don't put it in or 'pitch' it if you're out of whack. That said in my experience just pitch it in when you're ready.

There are plenty of good brewing thermometers out there but your fermenter may have a heat sensitive sticker on the side which tells the temperature.

But be warned, only pitch your yeast when you've added the extra water and chilled the wort - if you pitch your yeast into the boiled wort, you will kill the yeast which means you'll have no fermentation happening and you'll have a malty drink on your hands.

You're not making Panhead Supercharger here, you're making your first batch of home brew.

Protip - aerate your wort with a pump prior to pitching yeast to give the yeast a performance boost (but when bottling, try to avoid aeration as much as possible).

hops for brewing with beer kits

Step 4 - Hop to it

If your kit came with some hops or you were smart enough to procure some, chuck them in now, maybe half the packet. This is called dry hopping.

Some might recommend adding the hops 5 days into the fermentation process but we say just get on with it.

Close up the fermenter, make sure the drum or cap is on firmly.

Add your airlock with water inside. You'll use this to keep track of fermentation by observing the CO2 bubbles as they are released during fermentation.

A failure to see bubbles does not mean fermentation has failed!

Take a hydrometer reading

Step 5 - Let fermenting beer lie

This has now become a waiting game.

Once you've put your beer in a suitable place where the temperature will be fairly consistently warm, leave her alone.

Set and forget...

Well not quite - if you have a hydrometer, take a reading and write it down. You will need it to be able to work out when fermentation is complete and also the alcohol content of your beer.

A loose guide is when the bubbles are finished, fermentation is usually complete. Once you are sure this is the case, you can think about bottling your beer.

This is an occasion where you should consider completely ignoring the instructions on the can and leave your brew in the fermenter for about 2 weeks.

While at face value fermentation is complete, the yeast will still be interacting with everything and this extra time will greatly improve the quality of your beer.

Be patient!

Let me know when you are ready to bottle!

So the short summary on how to make your home made beer:

1. Add your malt from the can to 3 litres of hot water
2. Add any brew enhancer or dextrose, as well as any hops. Stir it all up.
3. Fill fermenter to 23 litres or 6 gallons with cold.
4. Check the temperature is OK and then pitch in your yeast.
5. Add the airlock, firmly seal the drum and place in a cool position.
6. Ensure fermentation is complete. You may want to use a hydrometer during this stage.
7. Bottle when ready but it's best to let your brew sit for 2 to 3 weeks.

So that's the rough guide to brewing beer from a kit.

As you can read, it's a pretty straight forward exercise and you don't need a Bachelor of Food Technology to get it right.

It's about good old home economics and it's a little bit about applying some common sense.

You might want to bear these easy to make mistakes in mind.

The absolute key things to bear in mind are having properly sanitized equipment, follow this guide and it's hopefully helpful beer making instructions more or less and don't stress.

Beer can be a tough mistress, but it can be pretty forgiving...

When you've become an expert on making a good beer mash, you might want to start thinking about the pH levels of your beer.

What I'ved learned after 5 years of brewing

What I've learned 5 years 'in' about brewing

There was a time a winter or two back when I was sitting in my man shed watching Star Trek: The Voyage Home and I was wrapped in a blanket but still freezing and I cracked open a beer I made -  a loose clone of Steinlager, which if you don't know is a very celebrated New Zealand beer - it's a commercially brewed beer that is actually quite an excellent drop.

Anyways, my cloned version tasted so damn good I had surprised myself with just how perfect homebrew it was, especially for a kit beer.

So I drank about 4 of them as Kirk and Spock saved the whales.

Who'd of thought kit beer would taste so good?

Actually millions of us, kit beers are really so handy an option these day's especially if time is a luxury and you don't have all the steel that you need to brew your grains all day.

Have you ever had 2-minute noodles?

They are fine in a pinch for a meal. But if you add a few things to them you can get a  really fine meal. Cut up some spring onion, some chives or garlic and drop it in. Maybe add some prawns and a hint of chili or even an egg and your two minute ramen noodles have a delicious meal.

And I've learned, it's the same when brewing with beer kits. Sure, you can make a nice beer with a kit, but it's all the extra things you do that can make a kit beer into something really delicious to drink, a beer that you won't mind sharing with friends.

Beer kits for brewing have had a long history and part of that is this legacy effect that they didn't make good beer. I've heard stories about people making home brew in bath tubs which probably explains why that beer tasted awful but probably the real reason they didn't come up to par was that they used ordinary sugar instead of dextrose during primary fermentation.

It's actually really easy to make beer using a kit - it's like making a cake.

And if it is one thing I have learned it's that when making a beer kit brew, you need a really good beer enhancer to ensure you get that brew rocking. A beer enhancer is a combination of dextrose and maltodextrin.

How these two ingredients condition the beer is key:

The dextrose serves as the food for the yeast and is thus excellent to use in the fermentation process.

The maltodextrin, however, does not ferment and thus forms part of the beer solution giving the beer it's mouthfeel and a true sense of body, both of which are important qualities that one can judge a quality beer by.

On the other hand, simply using a whole KG of sucrose if you're making 23 litres of beer means you yeast can go a bit crazy which results in your brew tasting too sweet or 'cidery' as the effect is commonly described.

That said, a handy trick for increasing the alcohol content of your beer is by adding additional sugars - you can get away with cane sugar or the by using honey but just note that too many sugars can 'thin your beer out meaning you get a less flavorsome beer and a weakened body.

If you do wish to add extra sugars to your beer, why not add them later - let the dextrose do it's thing with the yeast first.

One of the other things I learned really on was just how massive the part temperature plays on the brewing and fermentation processes.

I'd brewed and bottled a batch and left them to condition in the shed for a couple of weeks.

It was the middle of winter so you might be able to see where this is going.

hen I cracked open the first beer, I did not hear that usually reassuring hiss of CO2 gas and I thought something was up.

Sure enough, the beer had not carbonated.
Another bottle and had the same sad result.

And the third.


I realised that there were some potential causes. Perhaps I had screwed up the brewing process. Maybe I had added the yeast when the wort was too hot and killed it? Maybe some kind of bacteria had killed the beer. 

Perhaps I forgot to add sugar for secondary fermentation?

I actually suspected the beer had not actually gone through secondary fermentation. 

Beer yeast does its best work at a warm temperature. Lager and ale yeasts work at different temps but for the home brewer that's bottle condition, the temperature cannot be so cold the yeast curls up and hides. 

In my situation, that meant bringing the bottles inside the house for a few days just to give the yeast a chance to start bottle fermentation.

After three days of warmth in the living room, I opened one to finally hear that satisfying escape of gas. Problem solved. 

The lesson I learned then is that to properly store your beer so that it is carbonated, the beer needs to be kept warm for a few days before it goes to a cooler part of the house or shed for lagering. 

There's a genuine benefit to condition bottled beer in a cool spot. By keeping your lagers cold, there's a strong likelihood there will be minimal production of unwanted esters and fusel alcohols.

Another big learning I had was about sanitization.

Where ever someone is making beer, you will find someone talking about the need to have clean brewing equipment that is properly sanitized. While I have found some of the 'chatter' over the top, one absolutely needs to have good sanitization practices when making beer.

There are many ways you can do this but very early on I took some advice about using sodium percarbonate as a 'cleaner' and found that's all I need to use on my carboys, gear and bottles.

The beauty of using sodium percabonate is that it's the main ingredient of laundry soak so you may already have some of this agent in your own home!

Let me elaborate:

These products, such as name brands like Oxyclean are designed for washing clothes and yes, the percentage of sodium percarbonate is far less than buying percarbonate by itself in bulk but it works.

It really works.

So why do it?

Because it's cheap and it works.

It really does.

I repeated myself so you get the message. And the message is clean your gear and sanitize the heck out of it.

I also like to add boiling water into the mix - the hot water will help kill any localised bacteria that might be lurking in the corners and hard to reach places.

You don't have to use sodium percarbonate, many brewers swear by a product known as PBW, which stands for powdered brewery wash.

If you looked up any beer brewing forum and you will find seasoned beer brewers raving about this product and they will be recommending it to all and sundry because they think it is so awesome.

PBW is ideal for use with carboys and fermentors. It will also get the crud of all the pots and kettles on brew day - all you gotta do is soak them in a solution of PBW.

It's also handy for removing pesky labels from beer bottles that you want to use for homebrew. Give them a good soak and those labels will come off in no time.

It will not necessarily kill the bugs that might linger, for which you need a good santizer but I suspect it's a bit like sodium percarbonate and once you've cleaned your gear with PBW, you'll be ready to rock and roll.

You can even make your own DIY version of PBW.

Batch priming beer and higher alcohol content

Another thing I have learned is that, on balance, it's an easier bottling day if you batch prime the whole of your beer with one dose of sugar rather than adding sugar individually to each bottle.

Batch priming will save you time as you simply add the right about of sugar into your fermenter when compared to bottling but the real benefit is that you get a consistent amount of sugar in each bottle - so if you get the amount of sugar right, each of your beers should each consistently taste the same.

A fan favourite trick is to give one's beer a bit of kick, that is to say, a higher alcohol content.

Sure, you can just add an extra 500 grams of sugar into the fermenter and let the yeast feed on that to boost the ABV up a bit but there's a little more to it than that, in that you have options.

You can add the following ingredients to boost your beer's buzz:
  • Hopped Malt Extract (HME)
  • Liquid Malt Extract (LME)
  • Dry Malt Extract (DME)
  • Table sugar
  • Corn sugar (dextrose)
  • Honey
  • Brown sugar
Adding extra sugars such as corn sugar (dextrose), table sugar, and brown sugar will all help to boost and increase the beer's ABV.

The potential downside is that extra sugars do intend to make a beer taste drier and thin out the body and mouthfeel of the beer.

You may also be able to taste more bitterness in any added hops.

Maple syrup, golden syrup and lollies like jelly beans can also be used but they will all influence the taste of your beer.

It's an oft-recommended practice that no more than 1/3 of your beer's ABV level should be a result of non-malt adjuncts or fermentable sugars. That is to say, don't over saturate your beer with extra sugars!

As an example, if you are making a 6 percent ABV beer then you shouldn't add extra products that will contribute 2 percent of that total.

The more sugar you put in, the more pressure that you place on the yeast as those cells will eat and eat. A keen player will consider adding more yeast nutrients to the wort which may give the original yeast a new lease of life and extend fermentation.

Making your beer clear

One of the goals of many a brewer is to get clear beer. A good clear beer, free of gunk and sediment has the benefits of tasting better and pouring better too. A good color also adds to the drinking experience.

I've learned there are a few ways to help clear your beer, so let's have a look three techniques you can use. 

Using finings to clear beer

Finings are agents that are added at or near the completion of brewing beer to the fermenter. Their chief goal is is to remove unwanted organic compounds to help improve the beer clarity - as no one likes cloudy beer. Finnings can also be for wine, cider and alcoholic ginger beer.

Finings act by precipitating and then binding with the compounds that reduce beer clarity. They then fall to the bottom of the brewing fermenter drum or carboy - when you bottle, you do not use the sediment, so there's a stronger chance your beer will have cleared just nicely.

If you have made a batch of beer in a drum or carboy, just add the contents of sachet to the beer, about 3 days before you intend to bottle the beer. Make sure you securely shut the lid on the fermenter.

If you have done a boil, you can simply add the finings at the end of that process.

Such a simple part of the process!

Cold crashing homebrew

It's when you make your beer so cold that all the yeast 'leftovers' in your brew fall to the bottom meaning you can bottle or keg your beer, safe in the knowledge there will be little sediment left in the bottles and it will be quite clear.

Cold crashing is a popular alternative to using finings.

When you are ready to bottle or keg your beer, now is the time to cold crash. If it's winter, you're in luck, place the fermenter or carboy in your extremely cold shed for a full 24 hours and that will effectively cold crash the beer.

What happens at this point is the beer cools to the point yeast can clump together (floccuate). Gravity will then do its 'thing' the newly formed clumps other impurities will fall to the bottom.

That's the old school method of cold crashing. There's a handy way to do it all year round by using a fridge.

Place your 23 litre drum in an old but working refrigerator which ideally the temperature going to be close to zero but no more than five degrees centigrade. 24 hours in the fridge will induce the cold crash and you can then bottle or keg.

The most important thing to remember when cold crashing is that it should only be done when primary fermentation is complete - to be sure this has occurred you can take readings with your hydrometer. When you have two readings the same on consecutive days, fermentation is complete (I do recommend you let your beer sit for a further week though - this will let the yeast work its magic a little more and help remove some unwanted smells and the like.

Cold conditioning or 'lagering' your homebrew

The lagering process was born when it was discovered by alcoholic vikings that beer left in cold caves turned out pretty good after it had been left for a fair period of time.

Due to lager yeasts operating best at lower temperatures, they actually ferment the beer at a lower rate than compared to ales which often ferment at higher temperatures.

This means you should let your lagers condition in a cold area as possible - this process will help with your beer clarity too!

If you are doing a boil, chilling your wort can also help remove unwanted items from your beer.

beer hops
Here's a few pointers on using hops

Understanding how temperature affects the beer

The final thing to think about is the other side of cold, and that's warmth. There are a few points in the fermentation process where your beer benefits from being warm.

If you know the tale of Goldilocks and the Three Beers, you'll know that she eats the bear's porridge and she finds it:

Too hot

Too cold

And just right!

Which is how the temperature of beer works in determining that beer tastes just right. A beer that is brewed at too high a temperature may produce unwanted fruity flavours (esters) or excessive diacetyl traits and it will not taste like you intended it to.

'Pitching yeast’ is simply what one does when adding your yeast to the wort. It needs to be done at the correct time in the brew so that it can activate properly and begin fermenting. If you pitch your yeast when your brew is too hot (say you’ve just boiled it), you will kill the yeast with the heat and fermentation will not occur.

Brewers use tools like wort chillers to bring boiled beer down to pitching range.

It's also a good practice to store your bottled beer in a warm place. This will encourage secondary fermentation (this is sometimes described as bottle conditioning). As we discussed above, beer that's too cold won't even brew at all. And that's just no fun, even for Goldilocks.

↠ Tips on how to properly brew a good lager

brewing lager beer

How to easily make a great lager home brew

You might have heard that it's hard to home brew a good lager.

You might have heard beer kit lagers can be unforgiving beers to make and any mistakes will ruin the beer.

It's almost ironic that the world's most popular beer style is apparently too hard to make.

But, is this really the case?

What if I told you it was easy to make a great tasting kit lager brew?

Would you believe me?

The proof is in the tasting of course. Let me show you the secrets and tips of making a delicious lager from a beer kit.

I've made some great lagers and I look back fondly on the batch I called 'J' and just how good it came out. I was basically trying to make a Steinlager clone and it was truly superb.

If this backyard brewer can easily make a great lasting lager, you can too.

Are you ready for the secret of easily making a good lager?

Stop reading all the online nonsense and JUST BREW IT.

That's all you have to do. It's that easy a tip.


But just in case you think I'm pulling your leg, here's some tricks and tips for brewing lagers.

Don't rush in like a school boy

The key to making a good lager is patience.

Even if you think fermentation is complete, let your lager beer rest a few more days longer in the fermenter.

It's a chemical process after all. 

It's very common for lagers to exhibit sulfur like characters during fermentation (hence part of the rationale for people saying lagers are hard to brew).

Leaving your beer to sit for a bit longer will allow such characteristics to fade and largely disappear - which leaves you with a great tasting and smelling lager.

In the cold, cold night

In conjunction with time, lagers need the cold to condition and mature.

It's a lesson the Nordic people discovered long ago - they put their beer in cold caves over the winter and found they came out well ... lagered!

Indeed, the word lager actually means storeroom or warehouse so you can see how the cave thing / naming of the style happened.

Ideally, once you have bottled your lager, leave it in a warmish place to carbonate for a few days. If it's TOO cold at this stage, you won't get bubbles in your beer!

Once carbonation takes place, feel free to put your beer bottles in the garden shed for a few weeks where it's nice an cold.

For this reason, it's often considered good timing to make your lager near the end of autumn or the start of winter.

Keeping your lager cold will result in the production of fewer esters and fusel alcohols, giving your beer a better taste balance.

Expert brewers often refrigerate their lager.

Consider using well known lager yeasts 

It's a trait of lager that certain yeasts tend to suit being lagered. Your larger kit will come with a standard yeast - if you're feeling adventurous, you might want to order the Lager Yeast WL833 - it's a popular yeast for lager brewing.

Match your hops to well known lager hops

Saaz hops, in particular, are associated with the brewing of lagers as well as the classic German hop, Hallertauer . We've discovered New Zealand derived Green Bullet hop is also very handy.

Read more on good hop matches to beer.

You need to be  super vigilant with your sanitization

Ales are more forgiving than lagers, it's true.

The taste of an ale can over power some of the niggles of brewing like unwanted smells.

So, to avoid these happen to your lager beer, the best cure is prevention.

That means being meticulously clean during the brew and ensuring your equipment is sanitized.

The tip here? Sanitize, sanitize and sanitize.

Remember what the word lager means! 

It means basically to store.

So once you have bottled your beer, leave it to store for as long as you can.

Maybe even over the whole of winter, in a cold place.

At a minimum three weeks but it could be worth leaving your lager alone for a couple of months.

Summary - how to easily brew a lager:

  • Leave your brew to ferment a little longer than you would and ale
  • Select a tried and true lager yeast
  • Match with appropriate hops
  • Watch your temperatures, especially post bottling for carbonation and conditioning.
So these have been a few basic tips that will help you easily make a fine tasting lager beer.

Forget the hysteria that it's hard to make a lager and JUST DO IT!