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↠ Brewing with yeast (how to get a rise out of your beer)

brewing with yeast


The year was 1836 when Baron Charles Cagniard de la Tour, a French engineer and physicist proved that yeast were living organisms, totally changing the paradigm that yeast were not chemical substances.

De La Tour was the first to postulate that yeast was the cause of alcohol and CO2 production.

And ever since then, yeast has been king when it comes to beer.

In this post, we cover a range of brewing matters that involve yeast. First up is the basic question of:

What is yeast?


Yeast is a single cell microorganism and it's actually technically a fungi.

While there are many varieties of yeast, the one's brewers typically use, ale and lager yeasts are members of the family Saccharymyces Cerevisiae.

If you don't use yeast when making beer, you do not get fermentation occurring.

No yeast, no booze.

That said, you don't just 'add yeast' to your beer like you would adding flour to a cake batter. Like most elements of making a good beer, there are all kinds of things that need to go right with the yeast for a beer to be a good drop. 

What is the difference between an ale and lager yeast?


Ales are known as “top fermenting” due to the yeast layer that forms at the top of the fermenter. Lagers yeasts are called “bottom fermenting” as, you guessed it, they ferment at the bottom. 

Ale yeasts will best ferment in the range of 10-25 centigrade and produce beers high in esters and often lower in attenuation. These are both distinctive and desired characteristic of ales.  

Lagers ferment in the colder range of range from 7-15C and produce a cleaner beer with lower esters.

Woah Nelly, it's getting hot in here!


Yeast is, as De La Tour proved, a living thing so it needs to be treated right. And the first thing we should talk about is correct brewing temperature.
That’s why pitching your yeast is more than simply adding it to your beer – it needs to be done at the correct time in the brew so that it can activate properly.

The short version is if you pitch your yeast when your brew is too hot (say you’ve just boiled it), you will kill the yeast with the heat and fermentation will not occur.

For this reason, only add the yeast to the fermenter when you have filled it to the 23 litre mark with a lot of cold water. If you are aiming to get the yeast going at the suggested range, let it warm in the sun a bit. You can take it's temperature using a thermometer and you are good to do.

How to re-hydrate your yeast before you pitch it


A handy method that many earnest brewers follow is to hydrate the dry yeast in water before pitching. The reasoning behind this is that it gives the yeast a good chance to get started properly before it comes into contact with the sugars.
Rehydrating yeast in a glass

The theory at play is that the concentration of sugars in the wort can mean it is difficult for the yeast to absorb water into its membranes so that they can begin to activate/metabolize and thus commence the fermentation process

Based on that, I imagine that if you have made a high gravity wort that's full of sugar and other fermentables like DME for the yeast to eat, hydration is a good step to take.

In my experience I’ve never had the yeast fail with a simple beer kit but if you are keen to cut the potential problem out, feel free to re-hydrate your yeast. 

The professional way to this is by boiling some water and letting it cool. You can then add your yeast packet (or two!) to the water and let it begin to absorb – you shouldn’t do this too far apart from when it is time to pitch the yeast. You can even add some sugar if you are super keen.

Cover and leave for about 15 minutes and then inspect. It should have begun to smell like you are making bread and 'bubbled' a bit (see the above picture). If so, it’s ready to be pitched.

Once you've added the yeast to the wort, there will likely be some left in the glass - I have a 'waste not want not' kind of view so I add some water to the glass, give it a swirl and add it to the yeast as well.

What is attenuation?


In the context of beer brewing, attenuation is the percentage that measures the conversion of sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide by the fermentation process.

well-attenuateded beer will have a drier characteristic and have a greater competent of alcohol than a less attenuated beer.

Brewers measure attenuation because it is an indicator of yeast health and because specific attenuation levels are important for certain styles of beer. For example, if a beer does not attenuate to the expected level in fermentation will have more residual sugar and will thus be sweeter and heavier-bodied than planned.

The brewer would then investigate that the yeast was up to the performance level required or that it was used under correct brewing practices (such as appropriate temperature).

The typical values for attenuation percentages are:

Low: 72 percent and lower 
Medium: 73 to 77 percent 
High: 78 percent and upwards

How do I work out my attenuation rate?


You'll need to take readings with your hydrometer to determine your rate of attenuation. You then use this formula:

(original gravity - current gravity) / (original gravity - 1)

This will work out the 'apparent attenuation'. Remember to use your BEDMAS.

-

So the selection considerations of your yeast should reflect on what kind of beer you wish to brew. If you are making an ale, you'll want to choose a yeast that produces a lower rate of attenuation.

Brewers regularly use the following yeasts with ales:

For a lager yeast which will cause a higher rate of attenuation, you could try:

Saccharomyces cerevisiae beer yeast cells

Using old yeast can affect the performance of the yeast


Facts are facts, you need enough yeast to get all the sugars and other fermentables in the wort. 

If the yeast in your packet or vial are only half healthy, then you'll need to find that extra 50 percent from somewhere as the amount of yeast in the packet is measured out so the standard 23 liter brew can be properly fermented.

So basically, if you're using old , tired yeast, you might need to compensate for that by using two packets. Which is in effect adding an extra cost to your brew.

Many modern’s brewing recipes take the view that you are pitching fresh yeast and even further, that the yeast has been prepared in nutrient rich yeast starter.

If you 'under pitch' your viable yeast then it's quite likely your yeast will be under pressure to perform and you will get a low rate of attentuation - which this will alter the the intended characteristics of the beer you are trying to make.

So, the lesson here, as for most things in life (like hops), fresh is best!

Can I use baking yeast to ferment beer?


Many craft brewers would probably shudder violently at the suggestion of using a yeast that's normally used to make bread.

The truth is, you can baking yeast for brewing, as both yeasts (beer and baking) are different strains of the same species, saccharomyces cerevisiae.

You'd being doing yourself a service to ask 'what is the difference between baker's yeast and brewer's yeast?'

The difference between the two kinds of yeasts lies in the history of their cultivation.

Each has been grown for the the attributes they bring to the final product. In the case of beer yeast, the popular strains have been cultivated for hundreds of years to hone their specific attributes being the beer flavor produced, attenuation, and consistency.

Beer yeast will flocculate better than baker's yeast. When brewers yeast nears the end of fermentation, single cells aggregate into clumps of thousands of cells (flocculation), and drop to the bottom of the fermentor, leaving clear beer behind. Baker's yeast is not as flocculant.

Beer yeast that floccuates well will contribute to having clear beer.

A good way to look at the difference is that brewer's yeast was bred to produce more alcohol and less carbon dioxide while baker's yeast was bred to make more CO2 and less alcohol.

So be warned - using a baking yeast in place of a brewing yeast is like driving a Ford and expecting to drive like a Ferrari!

Using a yeast starter to increase the viability of the yeast




For complete fermentation to occur, the yeast cells need to begin to reproduce at an optimum rate. Temperature plays a vital role in the rate at which this can occur. The choice of beer style can run counter to allowing this. We're basically taking lagers here.

If you are brewing a lager, you'll know from above that it best ferments at a temperature range lower than an ale at 7 - 15 centigrade. That cooler temperature can impede the performance of the yeast.

While you could simply add even more yeast, that again costs money, so enter the use of a yeast starter. The idea is to develop a ready culture of yeast that can be used to carry out the fermentation of wort into clean beer.

A properly prepared yeast starter will have enough cells in it to do the required job, meaning the cold temperature should not impede the yeast.

So how do you make a yeast starter?


You follow the sage advice of John Palmer. At the very least, if you are using dry yeast, you should add it to a class of warm water and a little bit of sugar about an hour before you are ready to pitch it into your yeast.

When yeast might need a helping hand at the end of fermentation


As a round of a difficult fermentation draws to an end (temperature variance, over saturated wort), you may need to rouse the yeast convince it to finish the fermentation. If your fermentation is not quite at the desired final gravity and it seems to have stalled then there's a simple trick to do.

Stir the beer few times gently. This will cause the yeast that may the fallen to the bottom, to re-integrate with the wort again and find some new sugars to eat. This trick works best when fermentation is occurring at the higher end of the the yeast's operating tolerance.

If you're brewing environment is too cold, you may need to warm the wort and then stir.

Be careful not to aerate your beer or add nutrients if your fermentation is nearly done.

What is the shelf life of yeast?


Dry packet yeast, if stored properly, have a fairly long shelf life. I've seen punter say it will last upwards of a year or even two when stored in the fridge.

Dry yeast certainly loses viability over time so if you are using an older yeast, beer in mind that you might need to account for that by pitching an extra amount.

This is why many brewers would recommend that you do not use the yeast packet that comes with a beer kit as you don't know how long it has been sitting around. That said, I've been using kit yeasts for years and never had a problem. That said (II), when I have used Safale 05 it felt like the batch started fermenting furiously fast from the get go.

Liquid yeast is another story. Results may vary - many liquid yeasts come with the recommendation that they be used within three months date of their first shipping from the manufacturer but they can keep pretty well for 6 months in the fridge.

The better stored the yeast is, the longer it will remain viable

It is very common to use prepare a liquid yeast by way of a yeast starter. Even packets and vials where there are very few viable cells can be revived and multiplied with a well made yeast starter.

The loose rule of thumb then is that dry yeast has a shelf life of 2 years and liquid yeast 6 but you need to try and factor in the decay rate of the yeast.

If in doubt, make test the yeast with some water and sugar or make a starter.

Can I pitch multiple yeast strains?


Yes, you can mix the strains of yeast. You will get a mix of the properties of each yeast which will have an impact on the flavour of the beer. Where large commercial brewers are basically making lagers like Heineken, they are not focused on getting flavor combinations from yeast.

 Craft brewers, who by nature are 'taste explorers', readily seek out new flavors by mixing up their yeast or combinations.

Their quest for flavorful ales, wheat beers, Belgian beers, and strong beers has led them to mix things up.

The mixed yeasts do not compete over each other, they each simply go about fermenting. Given yeast imparts is flavour into the beer in the first 36 hours, each yeast should be added at the same time.

If you are trying to fix an issue of low attenuation by adding more yeast, then by all means you can add more yeast as little flavour will added to the brew at that late stage.

Yeast tolerance to alcohol



You might think it odd given yeast makes alcohol that you have to account for the alcohol produced.
A yeast strain can tolerate only so much of it before it stops working. Over the centuries yeasts have been studied and cultivated and beaten into submission so much so that there a plenty of strains that can handle high solutions of alcohol.

Such yeasts are desired to that they are able to fully ferment what's offered in the wort. There's simply no reason to let a beer be half fermented is there? So chosing a yeast that can handle the ABV of the beer you intend to brew is a no brainer.

Many yeasts do fine in the 3 - 5 per cent range, many Belgian yeasts get found out at 8 percent. A few hardy nuggets can go beyond 10.

 When going beyond 8 per cent, beers need a bit of extra love. Extra nutrients may be required, a high concentration of pitching yeast than normal should be used, the yeast should rousing, and warmer temperatures will help get the yeast ticking over.

If you are keen on brewing very high ABV beer, you'll need to appreciate that such beers may taste quite sweet or they can even become unpalatable.

How to identify 'off flavors' and smells in your home brew beer

how to identify bad flavors in beer


How to identify the 'off flavors' and smells in your beer


Brewing is not just boiling up some grains, throwing in some hops and bottling.

It's not that simple.

Brewing is a bit of science.

It's a bit of practice.

It's also a bit of experimentation.

You can do all that right but sometimes it's still a bit of luck.

Which is why when a brew batch goes wrong, it can sometimes be considered bad luck that your brew tastes like cabbage, butter or stinks of rotten eggs.

But is it really bad luck that your beer tastes like wet cardboard?

There are all kinds of chemical reactions happening in a brew and this is very normal and nothing to worry about.

It could be that for many brewers the smell of the hops over powers these smells and so when they are finally smelled, they get flagged as a concern.

For this brewer, I'd only be worried when it came time to bottle beer. And even then the first thing I would be asking is should I simply delay bottling another week? As every brewer knows, time is your friend when making beer!

There are many elements that can shunt the beer train off it's brewing tracks, particularly improper preparation prior to making the beer and during fermentation and then bottling or kegging.

Working out what went wrong and what it means means that you will be a better brewer for it.

And you know what?

The best way to learn is by tasting your beer and understanding what the 'off flavors' of your beer are and how you might prevent them happening with your next brew.

Here's a brief guide to help you trouble shoot common off flavours and what the smells mean for your beer!

When your beer tastes like green or rotten apples


I've never eaten a rotten apple but I know what a sour green apple tastes like.

Tart and bitter.

In an apple, this is delicious.

In a beer, this probably means you have a fair amount of acetaldehyde present. This chemicals forms at the beginning of the fermentation process. The yeast will eventually convert it to ethanol (alcohol).

This is why it's good to let primary fermentation continue for a fair time and to let your beer condition for at least three weeks. The longer you condition your beer, the greater reduction in acetaldehyde that will occur and the beer your beer will take.

It will also help to ensure that you correct a fair amount of yeast. If there is not enough yeast present in the beer, it will take longer for the acetaldehyde to be converted.

how do hops cause off flavors in beer

Who cut the cheese?


If you beer has a cheesy taste, you're probably getting a sample of isolaveric acid. Often described as tasting like old socks, the acid occurs naturally all over the place, including, funnily enough, in the sweat of socks. 

In the case of beer brewing this acid develops when the alpha acids in hops oxide. 

The fix is too use fresh hops - both in leaf and pellet form and ensure they have been stored properly. 

If you do find it in your beer, once again, let the beer condition further and this will mellow it somewhat. 

Another way isolaveric acid can get into beer is when you are using fruit. If you get a 'Brettanomyces' infection from the skin, you'll run into trouble.

What we do in the shadows


Ever heard of skunked beer?This is when a chemical reaction happens in the bottled beer due to over exposure to direct sunlight.

So named after the smell a skunk can release, 'lightstruck' beer is caused by the UV radiation in light from the sun and retailer's lights.

The so-alpha acids in the beer (which come from hops) are broken down and form a new compound in the beer by joining with any proteins floating around.

This compound stinks!

The solution is to condition and then store your beer out of sunlight or from under UV Light (why you would be doing that any way?).

Brown glass bottles are can preventing this from occurring as they can mute the effects of the light but not so much green bottles or clear glass. I have no idea why this occurs.

Refraction maybe?

So, the trick to avoiding skunked smelling beer is clearly to store your beer in the dark.
Funny how that's a solution to many of these flavoring issues eh?


This is why your beer tastes like wet cardboard


If your brew tastes a bit like cardboard or wet paper or simply feels stale, you've let in too much oxygen and your beer was over oxygenated. 

Here's the rule of thumb and oxygen when making beer. 

Before primary fermentation, it's encouraged. During fermentation and after it's discouraged. 

If this happens to you, you can't fix the beer. It is what it is. Drink it with some lime? 

The only way to prevent oxidized beer from occuring is preventing it from getting into your fermenter. Ensure the drum or carboy is tightly sealed and that your bubble airlock / airvent has water in it. 

When preparing the wort, oxygen is good because the yeast uses it before fermentation. When the yeast is doing its job, it doesn't need it.



why does beer taste like cardboard



Rotten eggs !


I once went to bottle a brew. The moment the beer came out out of the tap, a rank smell began to permeate throughout my man shed. It was disgusting, like some kind of vile stink bomb had been let off or I had dropped a case of rotten eggs on the floor.

My brew was somehow contaminated. That rotten egg smell can most likely be identified as the gas hydrogen sulfide  - which was the by-product of fermentation gone wrong.

It is the by-product of the yeast strain or bacteria that have snuck into your brew (did we ever mention you've got to sanitize your equipment?).

The thing about lagers and rotten smells is that all is not necessarily lost.

You can fix this problem if the sulfide was produced by the yeast and not bad bacteria.

Lager yeast strains are quite prone to producing sulfide odors. This is quite normal. If you properly condition your bottled beer (the lagering process) by letting in stand for a few weeks, the smell should go away before it's time to drink. 

Let your beer sit and be patient about it!

The news is not so good if you have a bacterial infection


I didn't tell you the whole story above. I was a very novice home brewer and I decided to bottle the batch any way. I left them for a fair time and then cracked one open.

Did you ever make a volcano for a school experiment when you add baking soda to vinegar? You get an explosion of foam and that's what happened to my beer. 

They were giant gushers

This was most likely caused by the unwanted bacteria continuing to work its own fermenting magic on the malt in the beer.

What a waste of time, energy and money!

So to prevent the smell of rotten eggs, you have to stop the infection from occurring in the first place. You must ensure that you have clean equipment and that you've done your best to sanitize it, and kept it clean during the beer brewing process.

Why does my beer taste like chlorine?

Or more rather, are you asking why your beer tastes like plastic or iodine? 

If you used chlorine to sanitize your brewing equipment, you may have over done things, especially if you didn't rinse properly afterward (which is why we recommend using sodium percarbonate instead of bleach products).

You may also have a water supply that is overly chlorinated. If you used this to rinse equipment of brew with, that's most likely the cause. 

The simple solution is to not use such water, however it may be that kind of water is your only source. What can do then is either filter it or boil it for 15 minutes, leave to cool (we don't want you burning yourself or killing the yeast!) and then using it. 

If you do need to use a chlorine bleach, then use no more than half an our per gallon of water and rinse with said filtered or boiled water.

Or move town. 

Why does my beer taste like grass?


You could be forgiven for thinking we are just naming every kind of flavour there can be and say that it can be found in beer.

So forgive us when we say that beer can taste like grass.

This can be caused by using old ingredients like malt and grains that have been exposed to moisture. The best way to prevent this grass flavour is to use fresh ingredients and to store them in dry but dark places.

Or it could be that if you've used fresh hops, you've added too much leaf and stem material. It should be obvious what to do.

Grass taste should not be confused with some of the qualities that certain hops impart into beer. Cascade hops are often commented on by brewers as having this affect.

What could be the case here is that the beer has been hopped too long. It depends on what you are going for off course but a lot of home brewers dry hop shortly before bottling to try and capture as much hop flavour as they can. A beer that has aged for a longer time with hops may lose some of its zesty-ness and be construed as being more grassy than hops. It possibly depends on how bitter the hops are as well.


Why does my beer taste like cider?


This one is a classic result.

One of the reasons home brewing in the 'bad old days' was because beer tasted too sugary sweet like cider.

And what was the cause of this?

Too much sugar.

If you make your beer with too much corn or cane sugar, cider like flavours will develop.

Brewers looking to increase the ABV of their beer will often add extra fermentables (extra as in more than the beer recipe required). Sugar is cheap and fermentable so they will add an extra kilo or pound of it and get the cider result as a bi-product.

What you can do is off course reduce the sugar and supplement with other fermentables like honey or more malt extract (DME) - basically use more beer enhancer!

what causes fruit smells in beer

Help! My beer has nice fruity smells!


First of all, check that you aren't making a nice stout with raspberry because that would just be awkward....

Brewers often report that their beer smells like fruit - banana, strawberry,  pear and even raspberry.

This fruity smell is quite likely to be an ester called isoamyl acetate. The occurrence of it in beer is extremely common. Like many of the flavours and smells in this guide, they are a by-product of fermentation where the temperature was too high for the yeast, or there was too little yeast pitched.

Generally speaking, the higher the temperature of the beer, the more ester that is produced during fermentation. They are caused by acids in the wort combining with alcohol.

The concentration level of ester will also depend on the kind of beer that is being made. German style wheat beers and Belgian ales tend to possess theses as a deliberate beer aesthetic. Go Bavaria!

One way to reduce the production of esters in your beer is to use a tall and narrow fermenter than shallower vessels. According to the American Homebrewers Association "this is because high hydrostatic pressure and levels of CO2 in the tall, narrow vessels inhibit ester formation."

We did say beer was a science!

To remove your unwanted esters the solution you have to prevent them from occurring in the first place so try and brew your beer at the recommended temperature for your yeast, favoring the colder side of the spectrum. This is especially so if you are brewing a lager because esters to nod add to the drinking experience of a lager.

The other option is to over pitch your yeast to ensure that there is no deficiency >> a low amount of yeast tends to make the yeast work harder and produce more esters.

Finally, ensuring your wort is properly oxygenated prior to primary fermentation will help the yeast function as intended.

A final amusing point on isoamyl acetate is that it is actually used as an artificial flavoring for things like banana milkshakes!


That delicious paint thinner taste is a fusel alcohol


Now I've never drank paint thinner but I've sure smelled them ! They are strong and pungent.

'Paint thinner' is a term for solvents that are used to thin oil based paint or for cleaning up paint brushes and equipment. They are usually referred to as white spirits , turpentine or acetone. Either way, you recognize them as smelling quite harsh - and you can imagine the taste.

While most people do not drink solvents, many brewers often report that their beer has a 'paint thinner' taste.

What is most likely the cause of this flavor are fusel alcohols. They are sometimes referred to as fusel oils.

These occur naturally in home brewing and will occur at noticeable levels to the palate when the beer is fermented at too high a temperature of the beer is left in contact with the trub for too long.

The way to prevent fusel alcohols occurring in your beer is to ferment at the recommended temperature for the beer you are making.

Most certainly do not leave your beer to ferment for a week in a closed shed at the height of summer! It will surely be too hot.

Ensuring you use a correct amount of yeast can help. If you have difficulty controlling the temperature of your brewing situation you could try using yeasts known for their ability to handle higher temperatures, such as Belgian yeasts.

Letting the bottle beer condition for a good length of time will also give the fusels a chance to break down.

Here's some other common flavours and what they mean:

  • Tart tastes can be caused by polyphenols which are caused by over milled grains that are steeped too long.
  • Butterscotch or buttery flavours  can be diacetyl and is naturally occuring. Affected by temperature and over oxygenation post pitching of the yeast.
  • Cough Syrup - possibly phenol which can be caused by a variety of things including improper sparging and mashing techniques, temperature ranges, and sanitizers and cleaning products that utilize iodine or chlorine.
  • Metal, pennies - a contaminant from non stainless metal kettles and poor water. 
  • Salt - you probably added salt to your beer. WTF?
  • Soap - you proabably added soap to you beer (again WTF) or you left it to soak too long in the primary fermenter and your beer is literally turning into a form of soap. No, you can't shower with it.

Final words


If you've made it this far, you will appreciate there are many factors and processes which can contribute to off flavors in your home brew (and of course ciders and wine). We haven't even covered them all!

Some of them occur naturally and will fade away as part of the normal practice of brewing is followed. Others will be fatal to you beer (such as a bacteria infected or skunked beer). 

Using well established brewing practices will help alleviate many of these problems from occurring.

So yes, clean and santize your equipment, use fresh hops, brew at correct temperatures and let your beer condition properly and you will have good tasting beer. 

⇒ How to increase the alcohol content of home brew beer (without becoming a drunk)

Increasing alcohol content of your homebrew beer

How can I increase the alcohol content of my beer?


Did you ever see the movie Men in Black?

It featured the wonderful Vincent D'Onofrio as an alien that loved sugar.

And lots of it.

That's basically the answer on how to increase the alcohol content of your beer.

You add sugar.

And lots of it.

At the surface, that's a very easy thing to do but the reality that it's quite a nuanced thing. Like baking a cake, straying from the recipe can radically change the outcome of the cake, and doing that with sugar can produce some changes to your beer that you might not want.

In the beer realm, the phrase Alcohol By Volume is used to measure alcohol content. As in that is, what is the percentage of 'alcohol by volume' of the total beer.

Commonly shortened to ABV, the question becomes how do I raise the ABV of my beer by adding sugars?

What can I add to my beer kit to get a higher ABV?


Here's a basic list:

  • Hopped Malt Extract (HME)
  • Liquid Malt Extract (LME)
  • Dry Malt Extract (DME)
  • Table sugar
  • Corn sugar (dextrose)
  • Honey
  • Brown sugar

Using extra DME  or LME for increased ABV


Some brewers will use extra dry malt extract as their sugar source.

As a rough guide, an extra pound or 1/2 kg of DME or LME on top of your recipe requirements will add an extra half percent to your beer. Doubling that will give you an extra whole percent.

Roughly...

Using a malt extract will more than increase the overall body of the beer, produce a higher finishing gravity or offer a more malty finish.  You might also experience a reduction in hop bitterness.


Adding extra sugars


Using additional sugars such as corn sugar (dextrose), table sugar, and brown sugar will all help to boost and increase the beer's ABV.

These sugars do intend to make a beer taste drier and thin out the body and mouthfeel of the beer.

You may also be able to taste more bitterness in any added hops.

Maple syrup, golden syrup and lollies like jelly beans can also be used but they will all influence the taste of your beer.

Of course, if you've ever tried an 8 per cent commercial beer such as King Fisher or Elephant, you may have noted how sweet most of those beers are.

Using these sugars may also lighten the color of your beer.

Using honey to increase the ABV of your beer


Honey is a fine product to use to increase your alcohol content because it is very fermentable and yeasts just love feeding on it.

It will also add a hint of flavor and complexity to the beer. The volume needed is a fair bit - 1 pound of honey will give about a 0.7 percent increase.

It's my personal experience that honey can really dry out the taste of a beer so I would consider using honey more for flavor effect.


Adding too much 'fermentables'


It's a widely recommended practice that no more than 1/3 of your beer's ABV level should be a result of non-malt adjuncts or fermentable sugars. That is to say, don't over saturate your beer with extra sugars!

As an example, if you are making a 6 percent ABV beer then you shouldn't add products that will contribute 2 percent of that total. 

If you are bumping up the additionals, you might also wish to boost up the other elements of your recipe to help balance the beer and keep it more like your intended brew. 

Placing pressure on the yeast 


A big caution is that the more sugar you put in, the more pressure that you place on the yeast.

The more alcohol that is produced, the slower the rate at which fermentation occurs. You may also feel your beer tastes somewhat sweater. But that could be in your head, I have no idea what goes on in there.

A keen player will consider adding more yeast nutrients to the wort which may give the original yeast a new lease of life and extend fermentation.

Too much alcohol may actually end up killing off the yeast. Some yeasts do handle the presence of alcohol better than others so shop around for those advertised as being tough.

You could also add a second round of yeast to your brew if you were keen. You might want to add the kind of yeast that has a higher alcohol tolerance but the standard Safale yeast will do the trick.

In terms of your beer preparation before you begin primary fermentation, exposing your wort to an appropriate amount of oxygen will help - make sure everything gets a good stir.

Temperature regulation will come into play as well


So, what you've got to think about to raise the alcohol content is that there are a lot of variables that can help you but at the same time, they may also hinder your beer.

If we were to put our 'Science Officer' hat on we would suggest you only make one change at a time from your normal routine and measure your results and make a judgment accordingly.

using a hydrometerFor example - you've made your standard ale brew often enough and you know from using your hydrometer that the alcohol content is usually say 4.5 ABV.

You may wish to add an extra half KG of DME to your brew and see if that raises the ABV to 5 ABV.

If that's the case, you win!

Knowing that method works, you could continually make changes in increments to get that ABV to 5.5 or even higher.

Just remember, the more sugars you put in, the great the chance of hindering the yeast, at which point you would need to consider yeast-based modifications to your recipe and practices.

In summary to increase the alcohol or ABV of your beer you can consider:

  • Adding extra DME, sugar or produce like honey and maple syrup
  • Adding extra to yeast to your initial pitch.
  • Adding extra yeast and yeast nutrients late in the usual fermentation process. 
  • Using a yeast that can handle a high alcohol content
  • Make sure the wort gets invigorated with oxygen before primary fermentation
  • Keep good temperature control, don't allow wild fluctuations
Most importantly, remember that brewing is an art and a science and one brews beer for love of beer and not to get consistently hammered on 8 percent haymakers.

Image credit to Martin Garrido via Creative Commons Licence. We don't know if Martin likes the idea of a Mortal Engines movie but we sure do!

Venting over carbonated homebrew beer

venting home brew beer gushers

Have you ever had a beer gusher


They damn well suck. You casually open your beer and whoosh! There's beer foam all over the bloody place. 

Why did this happen? 

The fizz is the result of over carbonation. 


There could be a few of reasons for this. 

1. You bottled too soon and fermentation continued.
2. Your beer is infected by bacteria and they have overproduced on the CO2
3. You added too much sugar at bottling time.
4. You served your beer too warm

All these factors you have a strong degree of control over. 

If you've bottled too soon, you should have taken a final gravity reading and determined that matched the kind of beer your making and that you had the same reading two days in a row. 

If your beer is infected, it's quite likely you didn't clean and sterilize your equipment and bottles properly. I've said this a million times on these pages, you got do the basics and do them well

And if you added too much sugar, you might want to rethink your practices. If you batch primed, how much did you add? From my experience 60 - 80 grams of sugar is enough for 23 litres of beer. Any more and you will quite likely get gushers. 

If you added sugar individually, then you clearly added too much sugar. I used to use a good amount of sugar, now I try and use half a tea spoon of sugar. It's more than enough. 

If you want a consistent and safe measure, you can always consider using carbonation drops when bottling your brew

Can you fix gusher beers by venting?


Yes, you can, kinda. 

Let's be clear though - if you've got gushers because you've got a bacteria problem, your beer is rooted and you'll need to tip it out and sterilize the bottles very well. 

What you can do is vent your beers individually. The technique is that you gently pry the bottle cap open so that only a part of the cap is exposed, let the CO2 escape and then quickly recap. You need to all of this before the gusher occurs! If you are clever you should be able to use your bottle opener to both open and close the cap with the same action. 

If you are really brave you might be able to remove the whole cap and replace with a new one as this will allow more CO2 to be released. It will be messy though - perhaps a second pair of hands will be able to help. It's possibly not worth the potential wastage!

It will be a long, painful process and you'll likely need to repeat the venting on each bottle if there is a lot of built up pressure. 

I have found in the past that the colder the beer is, the less likely it is to gush or be to fizzy or foamy. Thus I would recommend that you leave your beers in a fridge for 24 hours before attempting this little rescue job of your beer.

A wee risk to bear in mind 


Over pressurized beer can explode. And then means glass can explode. I've seen the result in my man shed - green glass everywhere and the dank smell of wasted beer. 

If your under pressure beers are that much of an extreme you should ask yourself is it safe to vent? While beer bottles are generally tough, the risk is there so I'd recommend you use gloves and a good pair of safety googles or glasses

What's the lesson here then? 

Use less sugar when bottling beer

Can I get methanol poisoning from home brew beer?

methanol poisoning from beer

Can I make methanol when home brewing?


From time to time I see potential brewers ask if they will accidentally make methanol when foraying into beer production.

This is because methanol is quite the dangerous alcohol.

It is toxic to the human body and can have some very nasty effects - ranging from blindness to the worst of which is death.

Everyone has heard the stories of some Russian sailors on a boat going blind from homemade booze right?

First up, the answer to the question is that the ordinary beer home brewing process makes the alcohol called ethanol - not methanol. So you can't get methanol poisoning, no matter how much extra sugar you add.

That's in general though - some methanol can be produced but at such minor levels that have no effect on the beer or effect on the body when consumed. Fruit beers which contain pectin could have slightly higher levels but the effect is still negligible.

So from that perspective, there's no risk of making a beer batch of methanol and going blind. It's more likely that you will just get blind drunk or meet Darth Vader!!

There are however some genuine risks if one is distilling alcohol - back yard operations can indeed produce batches where the methanol content can be lethal (or more sinisterly methanol is added deliberately and sold on the bootleg market). It's for this reason, most countries in the world have made the distillation of spirits illegal.

It is allowed in New Zealand but only for personal consumption.

The science of distillation is quite complicated and there appears to be an of myth around methanol production. They key point to understand that if you are homebrew brewing beer, there's no risk of making a killer brew.

Distillation on the other hand...

What is the treatment for methanol poisoning?


Methanol toxicity is the result of consuming from methanol. The horrific symptoms may include a decreased level of consciousness, poor coordination, vomiting, abdominal pain, and a specific smell on the breath. The famous effect of decreased vision or blindness may start as early as twelve hours after exposure. The blindness is caused by the methanol being broken down by the body into formic acid when then has a debilitating and damaging effect on the optic nerve.

The sooner the antidote, fomepizole, is taken, the increased likelihood of a good outcome for the victim. Other treatment options include dialysis and consumption of sodium bicarbonate, folate, and thiamine.


-

I saw a query from a gentleman who decided to drink a wine after having left open for 2 months. The wine was disgusting, he burned his throat and felt like he had a head. He wondered if the wine had turned into methanol so as to explain his condition. The wine's ethanol had not converted to methanol, instead, it was probably oxygenated and had become a vile vinegar!

Using fruit with your home brewing

making fruit beer


Brewing with fruit all about exploring what works for you


What are your personal tastes? 

How adventurous are you?  

Are raspberries your favorite fruit in the world? Then try making a raspberry stout! 

Got some more eclectic fruit preferences? How about an elderberry ale? 

That's the beauty of brewing with fruit - there are some many arrangements, styles, and combinations that there's a fruit brew for everyone. 

The fruits most commonly used in fruit beers are raspberries, cherries, apples, and citrus fruits. 

The point is you can use any fruit you like, it's your beer. Some fruits of course work better with certain beers but the world's your oyster in that regard - brewing is your hobby, after all, you can do whatever you like. 

So the first question would be fruit brewers often ask is:

Should I use fresh fruit with my home brew?


You might have heard the expression "fresh is best" when it comes to using cryo hops but when making a fruit beer, you need to consider that fresh fruit can have some issues

Taking the fruit right from the orchard or vine without some form of treatment makes some brewers nervous  - as they are trying to avoid wild yeasts. This has meant several practices have been developed to treat fresh fruit.

So the options which we will now examine are:
  • boiling
  • freezing
  • pasteurization
  • and being brave

Should I boil the fruit in the wort?


There are two schools of thought about adding fruit to the boil.

Many brewers will do it to ensure that any bacteria present are destroyed because nothing is as disheartening to discover your beer is infected and ruined!

And in that sense, it will work but there are certainly a few drawbacks.

Boiling fruit releases the pectin in the fruit and that will likely cloud your beer, giving it a cloudy haze that many brewers wish to avoid. It can also well as attribute to off-flavors despite the intention of boiling to release flavour.

Soft fruits like cherries, grapes, and strawberries contain smaller amounts of pectin than other citrus fruits like pears, apples, guavas, quince, plums, gooseberries, and oranges so you can way that up in your decision to boil or not.

If you insist you need to add fruit during the boil what you can do is steep your fruit in the hot wort, or add it directly to the fermenter at the right time. If you are going to steep your fruit, place whole, fresh fruit in a nylon or muslin bag and place it in.

So if you have decided not to boil your fruit what can you do?

Should I freeze the fruit before using it?


If the thought of boiling your fruit is too much you can totally freeze the fruit. It's a really common and trusted practice in the beer brewing community.

 The night before you think it's time to add it to the batch (post-primary fermentation), begin to slowly thaw it out in the fridge. It will then be ready when you need it. 

Freezing the fruit is not a complete guarantee against no contamination, but it will reduce the potential risk of infection occurring.

Oddly, freezing can also help with getting the fruit's flavors out of the fruit and into the beer. This is because the water inside the cells of the fruit crystallizes and expands. This process bursts the cell walls and in a sense, it mashes the fruit from the inside out. You can compare this to the freeze thaw action of ice on rock!

How to pasteurize fruit for brewing


In most civilized countries, the law requires that milk is pasteurized prior to sale to prevent bacteria such as salmonella, e. coli, and listeria from harming the general population. That suggests that fruit could benefit from pasteurization before it is added to the beer.

Basically, you use a low heat to kill the bugs. Puree your fruit so that it nice and smooth (so it can be cooked through). You pasteurized it by heating on the stove in a pot at 80 Centigrade for 30 minutes at a constant temperature. 

That should take care of the bugs - it's now time to add the fruit to your beer.  

If you make the fruit too hot, you will have the same effect as boiling and pectins will be released.

Being fearless and chucking the fruit it the fermenter


There's certainly nothing wrong add your fruit in sans boil or freezing. If you are adding it post primary fermentation, the alcohol present can protect against infection.

I guess you could always give the fruit a quick soak in some Star San or similar for a short while.


Pureéing fruit for brewing in a blender


If you are going to pureé your fruit - use a good blender. One that has of course been sanitized with something like sodium percarbonate! 

This reminds me to share that I once read of a guy who when blending would add a cup of vodka to the fruit to try and kill any bacteria! 

I reason this could kind of work and the vodka wouldn't add any unintended flavour to the beer. 

You should, of course, wash the fruit thoroughly and then remove any stems, leaves and pits or seeds before blending.

Can I use dehydrated fruit with beer?


You sure can add dehydrated fruit to beer.  It's less mess but if you going to pulp it up, you might need to blend it with some water.

When do I add fruit to your beer?


We've talked about it about but let's get into some detail.

So if you haven't boiled the fruit in the wort when do you add it?

Kind of like dry hopping, many brewers report that you tend to get the best results if you add the fruit about one week prior bottling rather than adding it directly to the wort on brew day (either before or after the boil). 

The reason for this is that the processes of the primary fermentation can strip out the flavors of the fruit.

So to that end, a good time to add the fruit is after primary fermentation is complete - so take your hydrometer and do your readings - when you have two or three identical readings you have your final gravity and can you add the fruit.

Adding during secondary fermentation has the added benefit that you are adding the fruit to a known solution of alcohol - which will help kill and work against any bacteria that may be sneaking in on the fruit.

black doris plums

Some punters remove the skins from the fruit


If you are making a nice plum lager out of some ripe Black Doris, you might want to think about peeling the skins due reduce of a wild yeast like brettanomyces which is usually found on the skins of fruit.

It's interesting to note that Brettanomyces were first discovered by scientist N. Hjelte Claussen in 1904 at the Carlsberg Brewery - he was investigating the 'Brett' as a cause of spoilage in English ales.

It's worth noting that while Brett is considered a contaminant in beer, it is a vital component of the wine making process for many winemakers. 

That was a slight detour - the key point is that if you want to reduce the chance of naturally occurring yeasts getting into your beer, strip the fruit of its skin if you can - might be hard if you're making a cherry beer!

How much fruit should be added to the beer?


A rule of thumb is to consider how sweet your fruit is. If you have a very sweet fruit, such as cherries, you might want to add less to your beer than you would say a peach.

The truth is that amount of fruit to add varies according to the desired intensity of flavour and aroma, but for a medium intensity, you should add ½ pound of fruit per gallon of beer for strongly flavored fruits like raspberries and up to 2 pounds (1 Kg approx) per gallon for fruits like peaches or melon which you could consider have a milder, less tart flavor. 

If I can't get fresh fruit, what else can I use?


Given fruit is quite a seasonal item, there are other fruit based options available. You can add concentrates, purées or juices to your beer - they've been well processed by the time they get to you via the supermarket so you can skill the boil or freezing parts of the processes and add them just prior to secondary fermentation.

If you simply want a flavour, you can use artificial ones or extracts, just remember they do not contribute to the body or 'mouth feel' like real fruit will.

How long should I bottle condition fruit beer for?


Bottled beer usually takes around three weeks to get to the prime drinking period, regardless of whether it has fruit in it or not. 

In our case, at least a month of bottle conditioning will give plenty of time for the yeast and other floaties to fall to the bottom of the beer as sediment (remember, you can always cold crash before bottling).  This will also give the fruit plenty of time to become one with the base beer flavours.

You can also remove fruit extras by using finings such as Irish Moss.

Go forth an experiment, young padawan!


The wonderful thing about beer makers is they love to experiment - there's something special about brewers who are willing to try new things and to mix up their norms - using fruit is a great way to do that as there are many combinations of fruit and beer types that offer even the most casual brewer a chance to produce a fun tasting beer. 

How temperature plays a role in homebrewing

best - measuring the temperature of beer with a thermometer


Why do I need to take the temperature when brewing beer?


If you know the story of Goldilicks and the Three Beers, you'll know that she eats the bear's porridge and she fines it:

Too hot

Too cold

And just right!

Which is how the temperature of beer works in determining that beer tastes just right. A beer that is brewed at too high a temperature may produce unwanted fruity flavours (esters) or excessive diacetyl traits.

A beer that's too cold won't even brew at all. And that's just no fun, even for Goldilocks.

So, if you know that the beer you are making needs a certain kind of temperature, how does a brewer work the temperature out?

The classic tool known as a thermometer.

Easy huh?!

But let's cut to the chase. The Etekcity Lasergrip Laser Infrared Thermoeter is the bees knees and well worth a trial.

Pitching Yeast at the correct temperature so you don't kill yeast


'Pitching yeast’ is just homebrewer lingo for adding your yeast to the wort.

Pitching your yeast is more than simply adding it to your beer – it needs to be done at the correct time in the brew so that it can activate properly and begin fermenting. If you pitch your yeast when your brew is too hot (say you’ve just boiled it), you will kill the yeast with the heat and fermentation will not occur.

Hence, brewers should use a thermometer to ensure the correct pitching temperature has been achieved.


The benefits of using a glass thermometer



glass thermometer for home brewing
Many home brewers will be quite familiar with the standard floating glass thermometer that seems to be supplied with some many beer kits (historically at least).

These glass thermometers generally are designed to measure a temperature range of 0-100 Centigrade (32-212 Farenheit). A great benefit of using them is that it is there use is so simple - it can be simply dropped in your pot or mash tun. It will of course float and be able to be read when ever you like.

Another benefit is that glass thermometers are an entirely enclosed system so you should have no issues with their operation and and are rarely inaccurate so you can rely on them

Being glass, they are of course susceptible to breakage more easier than some of the heavy duty temperature measuring devices.



Storing beer at the correct temperature


Generally speaking, it's good practice to store your beer in a warm place. This will encourage secondary fermentation (this is sometimes described as bottle conditioning).

The ideal temperature range is between approx 18 - 25°C for 5 to 7 days.

HOWEVER after that period, you should leave them in a much cooler place with a temperature range between approx 8 - 12°C. Three weeks a good length of time at that temperature range before you crack open a bottle.


Behold, the Bi-Metal Dial Thermometer (and how to use one!)


A step up from a floating unit, a bi-metal dial thermometer is a more robust measuring device which will give you a quick reading when checking the temp of the mash tun. They are some times called kettle thermometers.

These dial thermometers are also fairly easy to calibrate and they need to be as they can become inaccurate easily, especially when brewers use them frequently regularly. Dropping them once or twice certainly does not help so their calibration should be checked often.

The use of the bi-metal thermomter is pretty simple - the have a clip which fastens to the tun or kettle. The 9 inch probe they have extends into the wort to take the measurement. 

A good quality dial thermometer will be welded with a stainless steel housing and corrosion resistant to most chemicals. Like this Tel-Tru 42100909 Model from Amazon!

This is why the cooling process can be so important.

Cold Crash and temperature


When cold crashing beer you want the beer to be really cold so the yeast becomes flocculent and falls to the bottom of the beer.

You don't want to freeze your beer but you want it pretty cold so using a thermometer to measure the coldness of your fridge or unit you are doing the crashing in is pretty smart.

The common recommended range varies from 33 degrees Fahrenheit to 40 degrees F, with 38 degrees F being a fairly popular temperature point. 40 F is about 4.4. Centigrade.

Just remember a 5% ABV beer can start to freeze at 28F.

Now here's the big daddy of getting a read on temperature:

Using Infrared Digital Thermometers when brewing


An infrared thermometer is the bees knees in regards taking the temperature of your brew. You do not dip the unit in the beer wort you use project a laser at an object (such as beer) and the device then measures the temperature based on the infrared reflection.

So basically to use it you just point and shoot it at the surface of the water and it will give you the surface temperature reading. One reviewer on Amazon said "I found it to be quick and accurate for measuring water, the temperature of the pot itself, and external temperatures of fermenters."

So, let me introduce you to the:

infrared scanner to check brew temperatureEtekcity Lasergrip 1080 Non-contact Digital Laser Infrared Thermometer Temperature Gun


Pew ! Pew ! Pew!

  • It features a versatile design: Infrared Technology makes this thermometer handy to use when cooking and barbequing, performing auto maintenance, doing home repairs, and of course brewing beer. Measure all the from -58℉~1022℉/ -50℃~550℃
  • Better accuracy: the distance to spot ratio is 12: 1, meaning the Laser grip 1080 can accurately measure targets at greater distances compared to most other ir thermometers
  • Target quicker: a built in laser gives you the precision to hone in on the exact space you want to measure. 
  • Added function: the LCD screen is backlit, also has an auto-off function to extend the battery life, and features a low battery indicator so you never accidentally run out of juice (battery included, booya!)
We say the real benefit of using this device is that you don't need to get even close to hot water or wort - you can keep your distance.

I've seen it reported by brewers that when working with an all grain mash tun infrared devices can have some trouble. The foaming and grain on top of the mash tun can  interfered with the laser which can give incorrect readings.